Curacoa was a C-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy during the First World War. She was one of the five ships of the Ceres sub-class and spent much of her career as a flagship. The ship was assigned to the Harwich Force during the war, but saw little action as she was completed less than a year before the war ended. Briefly assigned to the Atlantic Fleet in early 1919, Curacoa was deployed to the Baltic in May to support anti-Bolshevik forces during the British campaign in the Baltic during the Russian Civil War, but struck a mine and had to return home for repairs. After spending the rest of 1919 and 1920 in reserve, she later rejoined the Atlantic Fleet and remained there until 1928, aside from a temporary transfer to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1922–23 to support British interests in Turkey during the Chanak Crisis. Curacoa was then transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1929.
In 1933 she became a training ship until she began a conversion into an anti-aircraft cruiser six years later. The ship played a minor role in the Norwegian Campaign of early 1940 before she was damaged by German aircraft. After repairs were completed later that year, she escorted convoys in and around the British Isles for two years. In late 1942, she was accidentally rammed and sunk by the large ocean liner with the loss of much of her crew.
Design and description
The C-class cruisers were intended to escort the fleet and defend it against enemy destroyers attempting to close within torpedo range. The Ceres sub-class was a slightly larger and improved version of the preceding Caledon sub-class. The ships were 450feet long overall, with a beam of 43feet and a mean draught of 14feet. Displacement was 4190LT at normal and 5020LT at deep load. Curacoa was powered by two geared Parsons steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, which produced a total of 40000shp. The turbines used steam generated by six Yarrow boilers which gave her a speed of about 29kn. During her sea trials on 14 February 1918, Curacoa reached her designed speed from 40428shp. She carried 935LT tons of fuel oil. The ship had a crew of about 460 officers and other ranks.
The main armament of the Ceres-class ships consisted of five BL 6-inch (152 mm) Mk XII guns that were mounted on the centreline and designated '1' through '5' from front to rear. While identical in number to the Caledons, the layout was considerably improved by moving the gun formerly between the bridge and fore funnel to a superfiring position over the forward gun with wider firing arc than in its old position, one was aft of the rear funnel, and the last two were in the stern, with one gun superfiring over the rearmost gun. The two QF 3inches 20-cwt anti-aircraft (AA) guns were positioned abreast the fore funnel. The torpedo armament of the Ceress was identical to that of the Caledons, with eight 21abbr=onNaNabbr=on torpedo tubes in four twin mounts, two on each broadside. The Ceres class was protected by a waterline belt: 1.5- thick and had a protective deck that was 10NaN0 thick over the steering gear. Unlike her sister ships, her conning tower was removed before she was completed.
Construction and career
Curacoa, the fourth ship of her name to serve in the Royal Navy and named to commemorate the capture of the Dutch island of Curaçao in 1807, was ordered in March–April 1916 as part of the Repeat War Programme. The ship was laid down at Pembroke Royal Dockyard in July 1916. She was launched on 5 May 1917 and completed on 18 February 1918. Her first commander was Captain Barry Domvile. On commissioning, Curacoa became flagship of the 5th Light Cruiser Squadron, part of the Harwich Force, serving there for the rest of the war. On 26 February, her crew was inspected by King George V at Harwich. From June onwards, she participated in reconnaissance sweeps ordered by Rear-Admiral Reginald Tyrwhitt, commander of the Harwich Force. Sometime in 1918 a pair of 2-pounder (40 mm) Mk II "pom-pom" light AA guns were installed.
In April 1919, Curacoa joined the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron of the newly established Atlantic Fleet. The following month, however, she was deployed to the Baltic as part of the British intervention in the Russian Civil War in support of the White Russians against the Bolsheviks. On 7 May Rear-Admiral Walter Cowan transferred his flag to the ship from her half-sister . Ten days later, the ship was en route from Helsinki to Liepāja, when she struck a mine with her stern, east of Reval (now Tallinn). One crewman was killed and three injured by the explosion, while Cowan, who was taking a bath at the time, was dumped out of the bath, running to the bridge dressed only in an overcoat until clothing could be brought up from his "day cabin".Curacoa was able to reach a speed of after some repairs and reached Reval later that day. After temporary repairs there, she returned to the UK for permanent repairs at Sheerness Dockyard; her rudder fell off while passing The Skaw and the ship could only be steered with her engines for the last to the dockyard.
Curacoa was under repair through July and was placed in reserve following their completion. She remained in reserve through November 1920, but later served as the flagship of the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron of the Atlantic Fleet through 1928. The ship was detached to the Mediterranean Fleet in September 1922 during the Chanak Crisis and arrived in Smyrna (now Izmir), Turkey, on 23 September. While there her crew assisted with the evacuation of refugees from the city after much of the city was destroyed by fire. Curacoa remained in the Mediterranean at least through February 1923. During the mid-1920s, her original 91NaN1 rangefinders was exchanged for 121NaN1 models.
The ship was transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet as the flagship of the 3rd Cruiser Squadron, which was commanded by her first captain, Barry Domvile, on 4 September 1929 and remained there until 1932. She became a gunnery training ship on 18 December 1933 and continued in that role until 1939. In 1935, she was one of four Royal Navy ships featured in the British film Brown on Resolution, where she played a German battlecruiser. In July 1939, a few months before the outbreak of the Second World War in Europe, she began a conversion into an anti-aircraft cruiser at Chatham Dockyard. This consisted of replacing all of her six-inch guns with eight QF 4-inch (102 mm) Mk XVI dual-purpose guns in four twin-gun turrets in the positions formerly occupied by Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 5 six-inch guns. A quadruple mount for the two-pounder Mk VII "pom-pom" light AA gun was installed in No. 2 gun's position. Quadruple Vickers 0.5inches AA machinegun mounts replaced the three-inch guns and her torpedo tubes were removed. Her masts were cut down and her existing fire-control systems were replaced by a pair of High-Angle Control System Mk III systems and a pom-pom director. A Type 279 early-warning radar was also installed. To counter the additional weight high in the ship, 200LT of ballast was added. Although the weight of the ballast alone was more than that of the new equipment, it increased her metacentric height from 2.93to at deep load.
Second World War
The conversion was completed on 24 January 1940 and Curacoa was assigned to the Home Fleet. During the Norwegian Campaign, the ship escorted a British troop convoy to Åndalsnes (Operation Sickle) in mid-April, although she had to land the battalion of the Sherwood Foresters that she was carrying, together with the light cruiser, at nearby Molde when the quay at Åndalsnes proved to be too small to allow all more than one cruiser at a time to disembark their troops before daylight. Curacoa returned home, but was ordered back to Åndalsnes to protect the beachhead there from German aircraft and arrived there on 22 April. Repeatedly attacked over the next several days, the ship was hit on the forecastle by a 250kg (550lb) bomb dropped by a bomber from the Third Group of Demonstration Wing 1 (III./Lehrgeschwader 1) on the evening of the 24th. The bomb killed eight crewmen who were buried at Veblungsnes after the ship returned home for repairs. Several hours before she was hit, her captain reported that she was running low on four-inch ammunition.
After her repairs were completed, Curacoa was assigned to the Western Approaches where she escorted convoys in and around the British Isles for most of the next two years. By September 1941, Type 285 and Type 282 fire-control radars had been fitted. As part of the deception efforts for Convoy PQ 17, the ship formed part of a decoy convoy that sailed on 29 June 1942, but was not spotted by the Germans. By September 1942, her anti-aircraft suite had been reinforced by five single mounts for 20adj=on1adj=on Oerlikon light AA guns and a Type 273 long-range surface-search radar was added.
On the morning of 2 October 1942, Curacoa rendezvoused north of Ireland with the ocean liner Queen Mary carrying 10,000-odd American troops of the 29th Infantry Division. The liner was steaming an evasive zig-zag course at a speed of to evade any submarine attack. The elderly cruiser's top speed was by this time and both captains were familiar with the zig-zag pattern as they had discussed in a meeting before their first rendezvous in August. Captain John Boutwood of the Curacoa decided to keep to the liner's mean course to maximize his ability to defend the liner from enemy aircraft, but Captain Charles Illingworth of the Queen Mary expected his escort to conform to his movements and keep out of his ship's way.
During the zig-zag at 13:32 it became apparent that Queen Mary would come too close to the cruiser and the liner's officer of the watch interrupted the turn to avoid Curacoa. Upon hearing this command, Illington told his officer to: "Carry on with the zig-zag. These chaps are used to escorting; they will keep out of your way and won't interfere with you." At 14:04, Queen Mary started the starboard turn from a position slightly behind the cruiser and at a distance of two cables (about 200yd). Boutwood perceived the danger, but the distance was too close for either of the hard turns ordered for each ship to make any difference at the speeds that they were travelling. Queen Mary struck Curacoa amidships at full speed, cutting the cruiser in half. The aft end sank almost immediately, but the rest of the ship stayed on the surface a few minutes longer.
Acting under orders not to stop due to the risk of U-boat attacks, Queen Mary radioed the other destroyers of her escort, about 7nmi away, of the collision and steamed onwards with a damaged bow. Hours later, the convoy's lead escort, consisting of and one other ship, returned to rescue approximately 101 survivors, including Boutwood. Lost with Curacoa were 337 officers and men of her crew, according to the Naval Casualty file released by The National Archives in June 2013. Most of the lost men are commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial and the rest on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial. The graves of those whose bodies were recovered or died after rescue can be found in Chatham and in Arisaig Cemetery in Invernesshire. Under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986, Curacoas wrecksite is designated a "protected place".
Those who witnessed the collision were sworn to secrecy under national security concerns. The loss was not publicly reported until after the war ended, although the Admiralty filed a writ against the Queen Mary
s owners, Cunard White Star Line, on 22 September 1943 in the Admiralty Court of the High Court of Justice. Little happened until 1945 when the case went to trial in June, it was adjourned to November and then December 1946. Mr. Justice Pilcher exonerated the Queen Marys crew and her owners from blame on 21 January 1947 and laid all fault on the Curacoas officers. The Admiralty appealed his ruling and the Court of Appeal modified the ruling assigning two-thirds of the blame to the Admiralty and one third to Cunard White Star. The latter appealed to the House of Lords, but they upheld the decision.
- Book: Admiralty Historical Section. The Royal Navy and the Arctic Convoys. Whitehall History in association with Routledge. Abingdon, UK. 2007. Naval Staff Histories. 0-7146-5284-9.
- Book: Balkoski. Joseph. Beyond the Beachhead: The 29th Infantry Division in Normandy. 2005. Stackpole Books. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. 0-8117-3237-1. 3rd.
- Book: Bennett. Geoffrey. Freeing the Baltic. 2002. Birlinn. Edinburgh, United Kingdom. 1-84341-001-X.
- Book: Dent, Stephen. Jordan, John. Conway. London. 2012. Warship 2012. 978-1-84486-156-9. Warship Note: HMS Curacoa – What's in a Name?. 172–74.
- Book: Dent, Stephen. Jordan, John. Conway. London. 2014. Warship 2014. 978-1-84486-236-8. Warship Note: The Loss of HMS Curacoa. 181–83.
- Book: Friedman, Norman. British Cruisers: Two World Wars and After. 2010. Seaforth. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK. 978-1-59114-078-8.
- Book: Gardiner. Robert. Gray. Randal. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. 1984. Annapolis, Maryland. Naval Institute Press. 0-85177-245-5. y.
- Book: Haarr, Geirr H.. The Battle for Norway: April–June 1940. 2010. Seaforth Publishing. Barnsley, UK. 978-1-84832-057-4.
- Book: Halpern. Paul. The Mediterranean Fleet 1920–1929. 2011. Ashgate. Navy Records Society Publications. 158. Farnham, Surrey, UK. 978-1-4094-2756-8.
- Head. Michael. 2009. The Baltic Campaign, 1918–1920, Pt. I. Warship International. International Naval Research Organization. Toledo, Ohio. XLVI. 2. 135–50. 0043-0374.
- Book: Kelly, Peter. Warship 1997–1998. McLean, David and Preston, Antony. Conway Maritime Press. London. 1997. 0-85177-722-8. The Tragic Loss of HMS Curacoa. 160–66.
- Book: Newbolt, Henry. Naval Operations. reprint of the 1931. History of the Great War Based on Official Documents. V. 1996. Battery Press. Nashville, Tennessee. 0-89839-255-1.
- Book: Pearce, G. I. R.. [https://books.google.com/books?id=cJPvDjenAMIC All My Yesterdays]. 2006. Trafford Publishing. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. 978-1-4120-5511-6.
- Book: Raven. Alan. Roberts. John. British Cruisers of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. Annapolis, Maryland. 1980. 0-87021-922-7. y.
- Book: Watton. Ross. The Cunard Liner Queen Mary. 1989. Anatomy of the Ship. Naval Institute Press. Annapolis, Maryland. 0-87021-599-X.
- Book: Whitley, M. J.. Cruisers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. 1999. London. Brockhampton Press. 1-86019-874-0.
- Niven, David. (1981). Go Slowly Come Back Quickly. ISBN 0-340-28347-5. Pages 121–123 describe the incident
- Thomas, David and Holmes, Patrick. (1997). "Queen Mary" and the Cruiser: "Curacoa" Disaster. ISBN 0-85052-548-9 Summary/review.
Notes and References
- Friedman 2010, pp. 38, 42, 48
- Gardiner & Gray 1984, p. 61
- Colledge 2006, p. 86
- Dent 2012, p. 173
- Raven & Roberts 1980, p. 62
- Friedman 2010, p. 414
- Whitley 1999, p. 70
- Supplement to the Navy List Showing Organisation of the Fleet, Flag Officers' Commands &c.: II—Harwich Force. The Navy List. December 1918. 13. 13 February 2015.
- Newbolt 1931, pp. 344–45
- Raven & Roberts 1980, p. 75
- Supplement to the Navy List Showing Organisation of the Fleet, Flag Officers' Commands &c.:I–Atlantic Fleet. The Navy List. May 1919. 10. 13 February 2015.
- Bennett 2002, p. 109
- Head 2009, p. 148
- Supplement to the Navy List Showing Organisation of the Fleet, Flag Officers' Commands &c.:I–Atlantic Fleet. The Navy List. August 1919. 701. 22 March 2016.
- Supplement to the Navy List Showing Organisation of the Fleet, Flag Officers' Commands &c.:I–Atlantic Fleet. The Navy List. September 1919. 711. 22 March 2016.
- Supplement to the Navy List Showing Organisation of the Fleet, Flag Officers' Commands &c.:I–Atlantic Fleet. The Navy List. December 1920. 400. 22 March 2016.
- Halpern 2011, pp. 391, 400, 425–26, 432–37
- Dent 2012, p. 174
- Web site: St Mihiel Trip-Wire: July 2008. WorldWar1.com. Great War Society. July 2008. 25 March 2016.
- Raven & Roberts 1980, p. 216
- Raven & Roberts 1980, pp. 216, 220–21, 428
- Haarr 2010, pp. 68–69, 72–73, fn. 49, p. 421
- Kelly 1997, p. 160
- Admiralty Historical Section 2007, p. 55
- Raven & Roberts 1980, p. 428
- Balkoski 2005, pp. 37–38
- Kelly 1997, pp. 160–62
- Kelly 1997, p. 162
- Kelly 1997, p. 163
- Kelly 1997, p. 164
- Web site: Wilson. Edgar Edward. Wilson, Edgar Edward (IWM Interview). Imperial War Museums. Imperial War Museum. 27 March 2016.
- Dent 2014, pp. 182–83
- Web site: Designation under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986. SI2008/950. Office of Public Sector Information, The National Archives. 27 March 2016.
- Pearce 2006
- Kelly 1997, pp. 165–66
Source : http://everything.explained.today/HMS_Curacoa_(D41)/